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TitelAborigines 
Anzahl Worte1211 
SpracheDeutsch 
ArtSpezialgebietsausarbeitung 
SchlagworteAborigines, Aboriginals, Australien, Kultur, Tradition, Didgeridoo, Boomerang 
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Aborigines


The word Aborigine is a Latin word, which is combined of “ab” and “origine”. “Ab” means from and “origine” means the beginning. So it means from the beginning. Scientists have found out that Aborigines were in Australia 60.000 years ago.
They comed over the land bridge of Newguinea to Australia.
The Aborigines were always fascinied of her land. The land gaves the native inhabitants all they need to survive, so they had to obtain her food the completly day. The men hunted and the women collected fruits and plants which they used for eating, as tools or for clothes.

Over 200 years ago the Aborigines were unknown for the European and the Australian continent was undiscovered. Up to this time the native people could build up a complex culture. They live free and easy. But after the discovery of Australia threatened the end of the aborigines. With the destruction of many clans the aborigines lost a lot of culture, and also identity and the desire to live. Today the Aborigines are still a minority in the own land.
The nomadism lived in simply huts. On huntings were used boomerangs. But the boomerangs wasn’t used only for hunting, but also for sport.


The aborigines, that means all clans and tribes. Some clans are for example “Yolngu", Murri", "Koori", "Nanga", "Nyungar" and "Wonghi". Often the different groups have meetings. On such a meeting they do traditionel ceremonies. They give the tradition to the sons and daughters. They dance, sing and make a lot of music. This ceremonies were often called dreamtime. On a lot of millenia were the love of the aborigines to the land bigger and bigger. They developed a lot of traditions. It existing a lot of rock drawings and cave paintings. It shows often the mystical elements of this dreamtimes.

Very famous are the legends about dreamtime. Legends are from tribe to tribe different, because it isn’t existing a real aboriginal language or culture. But every legend has got same objects. One legend we want to present you:

The Origin of the Fire


The fire comes from heaven. Two brothers Kanbi and Jitabidi lived there near the southern cross. One day they had no food. They went to the earth down with a firestick. The two brothers made a camp and went for hunting. They hunted long time. The firesticks gets boredom and they played with fire. As the brothers returned to the camp they saw a big bushfire. Kanbi and Jitabidi went back to heaven with the firesticks and the food. Some aborigines saw this bushfire and felt the heat. They took a piece of burning wood away. From this moment the brothers Kanbi and Jitabidi had divide the fire with aborigines.

:::The legends are often wrote so, that they are understandable for kids. On the first view it looks like a fairytale. But the real sense of such legends are deeper.

Culture and Language


In the past exists over 250 different languages in Australia. The temporal different immigration declare the big number of languages. Southern tribes are older than northern tribes. Because of the advanced colonialism over 100 languages were lost.
A lot of clans are interest in the language from the ancestors. In australian school the kids have two languages: english and the language of the natives.
Some examples for the language are:
Booroowal – day; chooka-chooka - dream; goonagulla – heaven; ilchar-atnitta – hand; thonku mundil – night; willawatta-thuyi – woman.

The aborigines have special, unusuall notes about cultivating of plants. Scientist search for this notes. It’s difficult, because they aren’t wrote down. Just the old inhabitants have got this knowledge.


Rock drawings, cave paintings and other works of art you can find mostly in holy places of the Aborigines, it means on big rocks or caves. They painted often animals, ghosts and situations of hunting in geometrical forms. Mostly they describe the dreamtime. You can find such paintings also on boomerangs, didgeridoos or spears. Sometimes they paint just the outline of persons and animals. In this persons or animals they paint organs or the scelett. They painted with red, yellow, black and white colors, which they get out of the nature. For example they get the color black from charcoel.
A very popular kind of painting is the:

Dot Painting


In the past the dot paintings were a kind of maps, which shows specialities of the land. Later they were painted for dreaming journeys. Everything they painted looks like an imprint in the sand – a lot of little points.

Feelings and experiences the native inhabitants of Australia show with music. For us sounds every song like the other. The reason for this is probably the many repeats of the rhythm instruments. The most known rhythm instrument is the didgeridoo.

Didgeridoo


The didgeridoo is also called Yedaki. This is the oldest instrument of the world. The aborigines used this instrument 40.000 years ago. But what is a didgeridoo?
The didgeridoo is a windinstrument, which you can put into the aerophone group. It’s an tree-trunk, mostly of eucalyptus-wood. Termits ate the wood inside the tree-trunk. Eucalyptus wood which is often used is Red River Gum or Wollybut. Today you can also buy bambus yedakis.
The didges are all different. No didge is like another. Didgeridoos can be long, short, fat, thin, painted or unpainted. So different like the appearience is also the sound. Every yedaki had another sound.
On the thin end of a digeridoo is often a mouthpiece of beeswax, which let not flow out the air. The wax you can form very good and so every player can form it specialy. The didgeridoo you have to play with a special form of breathing. The name of this form is circular breathing. This breathing is important for global tone.
Usually it’s impossible to breathe in and in the same time to breathe out. With help of your cheeks and your tonque you have to press the air in your mouth out. In the same moment you have to breath in with you nose. This is the circular breathing. It existing a lot of possibilities to learn this breathing.
The tongue is important for doing special sounds.
With help of the tonque the australian didgeridooplayers imitate often sounds of animals, for example dingo, owl or wild donkey.
Another instrument is the bullroarer. On festivals the aborigines make it on the head and let it swing. Then it produce a crying sound.

Aborigines Today


Tourists which want contact with aborigines have often bad luck, because the inhabitants don’t want to be bothered. But the existence of the inhabitants don’t looks good. A lot of them are unemployed, therefor they dring a lot of alcohol.
Racism is often showed. Politicians tell often about the “lazy blacks”. Some organisations collect money for the aborigines. They tell about Guilt Money. A lot of politicians are against such sums. In this moment they forget, that all what the aborigines built were in just 200 years destroyed.
Every year the aborigines do the Australia Day. They protest against the oppression.
Many artists showed, that they aren’t just an oppression. The rock group Yothu Yindi becamed world-famous with the hit “Treaty”. Collectors of art pay a lot of money for australien paintings.

SOURCES:
http://www.australienbilder.de/aborigin.htm
http://thetwins74.de/australien/Menu.html
http://www.australien-panorama.de/
http://www.aboriginalart.com.au
http://www.hart4art.com

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